The Knowledge Powerhouse for Citizen Science on Law and Ethics

The Knowledge Powerhouse for Citizen Science on Law and Ethics is part of a task dissemination from SOCIO-BEE and aims to communicate the project’s work as well as existing resources in relation to law and ethics and subsequent lessons learnt to the general public, encouraging the uptake of citizen science, by creating a publicly available knowledge hub hosted on the project’s website.

ABOUT THIS POWERHOUSE

The Knowledge Powerhouse is made up of a wide variety of resources, ranging from guidelines to blog posts, policy documents, academic works etc. They are arranged by different thematic categories.

In this way, we can summarise, compact and expand the existing knowledge base intended for diverse audiences.

WHAT YOU CAN FIND

ETHICS

Academic resources
Blog posts and other commentaries
Guidelines
Principles and Codes
Tools

GENDER EQUALITY

Academic resources

Guidelines

Blogposts

LAW

Academic resources

Guidelines

EU case law

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Academic resources, blog posts and other commentaries

EU projects and documents

ETHICS

Academic resources, blog posts and commentaries, principles and codes of ethics, tools and use of innovative technologies

Academic resources

General

Baard P and Sandin P, ‘Principlism and Citizen Science: The Possibilities and Limitations of Principlism for Guiding Responsible Citizen Science Conduct’ (2022) 18 Research Ethics 304 Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1177/17470161221116558

Brown N, ‘Research Ethics in a Changing Social Sciences Landscape’ (2023) 19 Research Ethics 157 Retrieved from: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/15/5/4496

‘Citizen science in environmental monitoring: a framework for ethical issues’ (Österreich forscht, 21 June 2023) Retrieved from: https://www.citizen-science.at/blog/citizen-science-in-environmental-monitoring-a-framework-for-ethical-issues

Constant NL and Hughes J, ‘Diversifying Citizen Science through the Inclusion of Young People’ (2023) 22 Journal of Science Communication A07 Retrieved from: https://jcom.sissa.it/article/pubid/JCOM_2202_2023_A07/

Ethics in Citizen Science David Resnick (Directed by Eterna, 2023) Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0ZT6JNDcmY

Ficorilli, A., Maccani, G., Balestrini, M., Biggeri, A., De Marchi, B., Froeling, F., Gignac, F., Grazuleviciene, R., Hoek, G., Kanduč, T., Kocman, D., Righi, V., & Basagana, X. (2021). Investigating the process of ethical approval in citizen science research: The case of Public Health. Journal of Science Communication, 20, A04. https://doi.org/10.22323/2.20060204

Goodwin, J., & Roberts, L. (2019). Citizen Science Ethics: It’s a Community Thing. Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics, 9(1), 35–40. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332725062_Citizen_Science_Ethics_It%27s_a_Community_Thing

Groot, B., & Abma, T. (2022). Ethics framework for citizen science and public and patient participation in research. BMC Medical Ethics, 23(1), 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12910-022-00761-4

Ficorilli, A. (2020, September 14). Ethical Aspects of Citizen Science Projects at ECSA 2020 Conference. Cities Health. Retrieved from https://citieshealth.eu/2020/09/14/ethical-aspects-of-citizen-science-projects-at-ecsa-2020-conference/

Harwell TA and others, ‘Is Citizen Science Queering Science? An Exploration of the Personal Dimensions of Engaging LGBTQ+ Citizen Science Volunteers’ (2023) 13 International Journal of Science Education Part B 116 Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1080/21548455.2022.2137706

Kasperowski, D., Hagen, N., & Rohden, F. (2022). Ethical boundary work in citizen science: Themes of insufficiency. Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies. https://doi.org/10.5324/njsts.v10i1.4318

Miller-Rushing AJ and others, ‘Conservation Ethics in the Time of the Pandemic: Does Increasing Remote Access Advance Social Justice?’ (2022) 276 Biological Conservation 109788 Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109788

Oberle, K. M., Page, S. A., Stanley, F. K., & Goodarzi, A. A. (2019). A reflection on research ethics and citizen science. Research Ethics, 15(3–4), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747016119868900

Patrick-Lake, B., & Goldsack, J. C. (2019). Mind the Gap: The Ethics Void Created by the Rise of Citizen Science in Health and Biomedical Research. The American Journal of Bioethics, 19(8), 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2019.1639389

Rasmussen, L. M. (2019). Confronting Research Misconduct in Citizen Science. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.207

Rasmussen, L. M., & Cooper, C. (2019). Citizen Science Ethics. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 5. https://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.235

Reiheld, A., & Gay, P. L. (2019). Coercion, Consent, and Participation in Citizen Science (arXiv:1907.13061). arXiv. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.1907.13061

Remmers G and others, ‘Mind the Relationship: A Multi-Layered Ethical Framework for Citizen Science in Health’ (2023) 25 Etica e Politica 171 Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.13137/1825-5167/35356

Resnik, D. B. (2019). Citizen Scientists as Human Subjects: Ethical Issues. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 11. https://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.150

Resnik, D. B., Elliott, K. C., & Miller, A. K. (2015). A framework for addressing ethical issues in citizen science. Environmental Science & Policy, 54, 475–481. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277960199_A_framework_for_addressing_ethical_issues_in_citizen_science

Riesch, H., & Potter, C. (2014). Citizen science as seen by scientists: Methodological, epistemological and ethical dimensions. Retrieved from https://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/10337

Riley J and Mason-Wilkes W, ‘Dark Citizen Science’ (2024) 33 Public Understanding of Science 142 Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1177/09636625231203470

Tauginienė, L., Hummer, P., Albert, A., Cigarini, A., & Vohland, K. (2021). Ethical Challenges and Dynamic Informed Consent. In K. Vohland, A. Land-Zandstra, L. Ceccaroni, R. Lemmens, J. Perelló, M. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-58278-4_20

Additional resources

Banks, S., & Brydon-Miller, M. (2018). Ethics in participatory research. In S. Banks & M. Brydon-Miller (Eds.), Banks,  S. & Brydon-Miller,  M. (Eds.). (2018). Ethics in participatory research for health and social well-being: Cases and commentaries. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, pp. 1-30 (pp. 1–30). Routledge. https://dro.dur.ac.uk/26374/

Bietz, M., Patrick, K., & Bloss, C. (2019). Data Donation as a Model for Citizen Science Health Research. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.178

Bowser, A., Shilton, K., Preece, J., & Warrick, E. (2017). Accounting for Privacy in Citizen Science: Ethical Research in a Context of Openness. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, 2124–2136. https://doi.org/10.1145/2998181.2998305

Brown, P., Morello-Frosch, R., Brody, J. G., Altman, R. G., Rudel, R. A., Senier, L., Pérez, C., & Simpson, R. (2010). Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study. Environmental Health, 9(1), 39. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-9-39

Eleta, I., Clavell, G. G., Righi, V., & Balestrini, M. (2019). The Promise of Participation and Decision-Making Power in Citizen Science. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 8. https://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.171

Flicker, S., Travers, R., Guta, A., McDonald, S., & Meagher, A. (2007). Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards. Journal of Urban Health, 84(4), 478–493. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-007-9165-7

Guerrini, C. J., Crossnohere, N. L., Rasmussen, L., & Bridges, J. F. P. (2021). A best–worst scaling experiment to prioritize concern about ethical issues in citizen science reveals heterogeneity on people-level v. Data-level issues. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 19119. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96743-4

Hansen, J. S., Gadegaard, S., Hansen, K. K., Larsen, A. V., Møller, S., Thomsen, G. S., & Holmstrand, K. F. (2021). Research Data Management Challenges in Citizen Science Projects and Recommendations for Library Support Services. A Scoping Review and Case Study. Data Science Journal, 20(1), 25. https://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2021-025

Lynn, S. J., Kaplan, N., Newman, S., Scarpino, R., & Newman, G. (2019). Designing a Platform for Ethical Citizen Science: A Case Study of CitSci.org. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.227

Majumder, M. A., & McGuire, A. L. (2020). Data Sharing in the Context of Health-Related Citizen Science. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 48(S1), 167–177. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1073110520917044

Roy, S., & Edwards, M. (2019). Citizen Science During the Flint, Michigan Federal Water Emergency: Ethical Dilemmas and Lessons Learned. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 12. https://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.154

Scheibner, J., Jobin, A., & Vayena, E. (2021). Ethical Issues with Using Internet of Things Devices in Citizen Science Research: A Scoping Review. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 9, 629649. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2021.629649 

Sorensen, A. E., Jordan, R. C., LaDeau, S. L., Biehler, D., Wilson, S., Pitas, J.-H., & Leisnham, P. T. (2019). Reflecting on Efforts to Design an Inclusive Citizen Science Project in West Baltimore. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 13. https://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.170

Blog posts and other commentaries

Berti Suman, A., & Schade, S. (2022, February, 23). Our visual consent forms now out as Creative Commons. Retrieved from https://sensingforjustice.webnode.it/l/our-visual-consent-forms-now-out-as-creative-commons/

Biggeri, A. (n.d.). Un’etica per ogni pratica scientifica, anche per quella dei cittadini. [An ethics for every scientific practice, even for that of citizens] www.epiprev.it. Retrieved, from https://epiprev.it/4451

Citizen Science Projects Surging, But Often Lack IRB Ethical Oversight (n.d.). Relias Media. Retrieved from https://www.reliasmedia.com/articles/149105-citizen-science-projects-surging-but-often-lack-irb-ethical-oversight

Didio, A. (n.d.). Assent from & Informative material for minors. Arise Initiative Retrieved from https://www.ariseinitiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Didio_Assent-form-Informative-material-for-minors.pdf

‘Ethics and Technology | Sociales y Humanas | Deusto’ Retrieved from: https://www.deusto.es/en/home/we-are-deusto/university-centres/institutes/centre-for-applied-ethics/ethics-by-areas/ethics-technology

CSA  WEBINAR Citizen Science Ethics 101 (2018, September, 18). Citizen Science Association. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kj3udfvtFdY

CSA WEBINAR Situation Assessment and Stakeholder Analysis for Citizen Science (2018, November 30). Citizen Science Association. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1w2f70N4sao&t=11s

Ficorilli, A. (n.d.). Quale etica per la citizen science? [What ethics for citizen science?] www.epiprev.it. Retrieved from https://epiprev.it/4452

Gilbert, S. (2019, October 21). Citizen Science: Potential Benefits and Ethical Challenges. The Hastings Center. https://www.thehastingscenter.org/citizen-science-potential-benefits-and-ethical-challenges/

Herman, J. (2020, November 2). An Ethical Code for Citizen Science? Retrieved from http://justice-everywhere.org/democracy/tbd/

Rasmussen, L. (n.d.). Filling the ‘Ethics Gap’ in Citizen Science Research: A Workshop Report. 12. https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/supported/translational/peph/webinars/ethics/rasmussen_508.pdf

Stone, J. (n.d.). Of Citizen Science, Ethics, and IRBs the view from Science Online. Scientific American Blog Network. Retrieved from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/molecules-to-medicine/of-citizen-science-ethics-and-irbs-the-view-from-science-online/

Tribur, M. (2019, October 3). What Makes for Ethical Citizen Science Research? Eos. http://eos.org/articles/what-makes-for-ethical-citizen-science-research

Ficorilli, A. (2020, May 29). What ethics for citizen science? Cities Health. Retrieved from https://citieshealth.eu/2020/05/29/what-ethics-for-citizen-science/

Network of the National Library of Medicine [NNLM] (Director). (2021, May 14). Ethical Considerations In Citizen Science with Dr. Rasmussen. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ZKBtrGUaEU

Guidelines

General

Citizen’s Guide to Open Data

International Compilation of Human Research Standards

Ethics and privacy guidelines by SCIVIL (Knowledge center for citizen science in Flanders)

Citizen science at universities: Trends, guidelines and recommendations

‘Citizen Science – Research – University of St Andrews’ Retrieved from: https://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/research/integrity-ethics/humans/ethical-guidance/citizen-science/ accessed 18 April 2024

‘Data Ethics Toolkit’ (Association for Advancing Participatory Sciences) Retrieved from: https://participatorysciences.org/resources/data-ethics/

Hultquist C and others, ‘Editorial: Open Citizen Science Data and Methods’ (2022) 4 Frontiers in Climate Retrieved from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fclim.2022.943534

Soacha K, Cardenas A and Alvarez A, ‘D3.1 Best Practices For Collaborative Development Of Citizen Science Data Infrastructures’ Retrieved from: https://zenodo.org/records/10635857

Wiarda and others, ‘Ethics Framework and Guidelines for Participatory Processes in the Activities of Research Funding Organizations’ Retrieved from: https://zenodo.org/records/8089673

EU

European Union Agency for Cybersecurity. (2021). Data pseudonymisation: Advanced techniques and use cases : technical analysis of cybersecurity measures in data protection and privacy. Publications Office. https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2824/860099

European Union Agency for Cybersecurity. (2022a). Data protection engineering: From theory to practice. Publications Office. https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2824/09079

European Union Agency for Cybersecurity. (2022b). Deploying pseudonymisation techniques: The case of health sector. Publications Office. https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2824/092874

Schade, S., & Tsinaraki, C. (2016, May 18). Survey report: Data management in Citizen Science projects. JRC Publications Repository. https://doi.org/10.2788/539115

European Network and Information Security Agency. (2019). Pseudonymisation techniques and best practices: Recommendations on shaping technology according to data protection and privacy provisions. Publications Office. https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2824/247711

Tools
Basic Research Concepts (Office of Research Integrity, USA)

EU-Citizen.Science (2022, March 21). Basic regulations and ethics for citizen science. Retrieved from https://eu-citizen.science/resource/321

Research ethics (ACTION Project)

PANELFIT. (n.d.) Main Tools and Actions. https://guidelines.panelfit.eu/the-gdpr/main-tools-and-actions/

Research Ethics Online Training (World Health Organisation)

Use of innovative technologies

Artificial Intelligence

European Commission (2019, April 8). Ethics guidelines for trustworthy AI. Retrieved from https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/library/ethics-guidelines-trustworthy-ai

Ceccaroni, L., Bibby, J., Roger, E., Flemons, P., Michael, K., Fagan, L., & Oliver, J. L. (2019). Opportunities and Risks for Citizen Science in the Age of Artificial Intelligence. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 29. https://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.241

Drones

Communication on countering potential threats posed by drones COM(2023) 659 final https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52023DC0659

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/947 of 24 May 2019 on the rules and procedures for the operation of unmanned aircraft C/2019/3824 https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32019R0947

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/945 of 12 March 2019 on unmanned aircraft systems and on third-country operators of unmanned aircraft systems C/2019/1821 https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg_del/2019/945/oj

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament COM(2023) 659 final on countering potential threats posed by drones https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52023DC0659

EASA (2022, September 28). Easy Access Rules for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Regulation (EU) 2019/947 and Regulation (EU) 2019/945)—Revision from September 2021—Available in online format. Retrieved from https://www.easa.europa.eu/en/document-library/easy-access-rules/easy-access-rules-unmanned-aircraft-systems-regulation-eu

EASA (2020, April 6). EASA publishes first rules for safe drone operations in Europe’s cities. Retrieved  from https://www.easa.europa.eu/en/newsroom-and-events/press-releases/easa-publishes-first-rules-safe-drone-operations-europes-cities

EASA (2021, March 3). Drones Information Notices—Classes 0-6. Retrieved from https://www.easa.europa.eu/en/document-library/general-publications/drones-information-notices

Drones (UAS). (n.d.). EASA. Retrieved from https://www.easa.europa.eu/en/the-agency/faqs/drones-uas

‘New EU Rules on Dedicated Airspace for Drones Enter into Force – European Commission’ Retrieved from: https://transport.ec.europa.eu/news-events/news/new-eu-rules-dedicated-airspace-drones-enter-force-2023-01-26_en

‘Remote Identification Will Become Mandatory for Drones across Europe | EASA’ (28 November 2023) Retrieved from: https://www.easa.europa.eu/en/document-library/general-publications/remote-identification-will-become-mandatory-drones-across

Wearables

European Commission (2018, February 26). Feedback from stakeholders on the Smart Wearables reflection and orientation paper. Retrieved from https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/news/feedback-stakeholders-smart-wearables-reflection-and-orientation-paper

ENISA (2019, November 19). Good Practices for Security of IoT – Secure Software Development Lifecycle. [Report/Study]. Retrieved from https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/good-practices-for-security-of-iot-1

ENISA (2020, November 9). Guidelines for Securing the Internet of Things. [Report/Study]. Retrieved from https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/guidelines-for-securing-the-internet-of-things

GENDER EQUALITY

General information, guidelines, and blogposts on gender equality

Academic resources

European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, Warin, C., Delaney, N., Tornasi, Z., Citizen science and citizen engagement – Achievements in Horizon 2020 and recommendations on the way forward, Delaney, N.(editor), Tornasi, Z.(editor), Publications Office, 2020. Retrieved from https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2777/05286

Gawronska-Nowak, B., Lis, P., Zadorozhna, O., & Zarzycka, A. (2023). Profiling European citizen scientist: Evidence from Poland. Journal of International Studies, 16(4), 281-295. Retrieved from: https://jois.eu/files/18_jis_Gawronska-Nowak%20et%20al.pdf

Ibrahim, K., Khodursky, S., & Yasseri, T. (2021). Gender imbalance and spatiotemporal patterns of contributions to citizen science projects: the case of zooniverse. Frontiers in Physics, 9, 650720. Retrieved from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphy.2021.650720/full

Jönsson, M., Kasperowski, D., Coulson, S.J. et al. Inequality persists in a large citizen science programme despite increased participation through ICT innovations. Ambio 53, 126–137 (2024). Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-023-01917-1

Guidelines

Gender Equality in Academia and Research – GEAR tool. Retrieved from: https://eige.europa.eu/gender-mainstreaming/toolkits/gear/horizon-europe-gep-criterion?language_content_entity=en

Horizon Europe Guidance on Gender Equality Plans. Retrieved from: https://gender-spear.eu/assets/content/Horizon%20Europe%20Guidance%20on%20GEP_en.pdf

RRI toolkit on Gender Equality. Retrieved from: https://rri-tools.eu/gender-equality

Science Europe practical Guide to improving gender equality in research Organizations. Retrieved from: https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/node/2099

Blogposts

Kimura C and Marks A, ‘Bridging the Divide: How Citizen Science Can Help Narrow the Gender Data Gap’ (TReNDS, 8 March 2021). Retrieved from: https://www.sdsntrends.org/blog/citizenscienceandgenderdata

SOCIO-BEE Inclusion Checklist: Pioneering Inclusion and Gender Equality in Citizen. Retrieved from: https://socio-bee.eu/?p=1440

LAW

General legal information, case studies, case law, citizen science and data practices

Academic resources

General

Berti Suman A and Alblas E, ‘Exploring Citizen Science over Time: Sensing, Technology and the Law’ (2023) 15 Sustainability Retrieved from: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/15/5/4496

Champion, S. (n.d.). Internet of Things Devices, Citizen Science Research and the Right to Science: Ethical and Legal Issues. HIIG. Retrieved from https://www.hiig.de/publication/internet-of-things-devices-citizen-science-research-and-the-right-to-science/

Citizen Science Association (n.d.). Research Articles & Case Studies.  Google Docs. Retrieved from https://docs.google.com/document/d/1v6sJkRfrzEoeqyRfcRmSW9McZUi7-fGdQtTvBOzSwDA/edit?usp=embed_facebook

Hawe P and others, ‘The Risk Management Practices of Health Research Ethics Committees May Undermine Citizen Science to Address Basic Human Rights’ (2022) 15 Public Health Ethics 194 Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1093/phe/phab029

Kotiuk I, Weiss A and Taddei U, ‘Does the European Convention on Human Rights Guarantee a Human Right to Clean and Healthy Air? Litigating at the Nexus between Human Rights and the Environment – the Practitioners’ Perspective’ (2022) 13 Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 122 Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.4337/jhre.2022.00.04

Lang M and others, ‘Crowdsourcing Smartphone Data for Biomedical Research: Ethical and Legal Questions’ (2023) 9 DIGITAL HEALTH 20552076231204428 Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.4337/jhre.2022.00.04

Lutman K and Strojan L, ‘State Liability for Health Damage Caused by Excessive Air Pollution: Constitutional and Private Law Aspects’ (2023) 18 Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Law 31 Retrieved from: https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/jagrev18&i=31

Misonne, D. (2021). The emergence of a right to clean air: Transforming European Union law through litigation and citizen science. Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law, 30(1), 34–45. Retrieved from https://researchnow.flinders.edu.au/en/publications/internet-of-things-devices-citizen-science-research-and-the-right

Pierce, R., & Evram, M. (2022). Getting it right: Implementing data protection in citizen science research. Insights, 35(0), 2. https://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.538

Purtova N and Pierce RL, ‘Citizen Scientists as Data Controllers: Data Protection and Ethics Challenges of Distributed Science’ (2024) 52 Computer Law & Security Review 105911 Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0267364923001218

Quinn, P. (2018). Is the GDPR and Its Right to Data Portability a Major Enabler of Citizen Science? Global Jurist, 18(2). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325635784_Is_the_GDPR_and_Its_Right_to_Data_Portability_a_Major_Enabler_of_Citizen_Science

Scassa, T., & Chung H. (2015). Managing Intellectual Property Rights in Citizen Science: A Guide for Researchers and Citizen Scientists. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved from https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/managing-intellectual-property-rights-citizen-science-guide-for-researchers-and-citizen

Additional resources

Dove, E. S., & Chen, J. (2020). To What Extent Does the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) Apply to Citizen Scientist-Led Health Research with Mobile Devices? The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 48(1_suppl), 187–195. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1073110520917046

Quinn, P. (2021). Research under the GDPR – a level playing field for public and private sector research? Life Sciences, Society and Policy, 17(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40504-021-00111-z

Guidelines

EU

Other

EU case law

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Information about artificial intelligence, drones, wearables…

Academic resources, blog posts and other commentaries

Berti Suman, A. (2018, December 14). Civic resistance to environmental failures from the South (of the North…): The AnalyzeBasilicata initiative – DATACTIVE. Retrieved from https://data-activism.net/2018/12/civic-resistance-to-environmental-failures-from-the-south-of-the-north-the-analyzebasilicata-initiative/

Drones & Science Apps in citizen science

de Sherbinin, A., Bowser, A., Chuang, T.-R., Cooper, C., Danielsen, F., Edmunds, R., Elias, P., Faustman, E., Hultquist, C., Mondardini, R., Popescu, I., Shonowo, A., & Sivakumar, K. (2021). The Critical Importance of Citizen Science Data. Frontiers in Climate, 3, 650760. https://doi.org/10.3389/fclim.2021.650760

Eitzel, M. V., Cappadonna, J. L., Santos-Lang, C., Duerr, R. E., Virapongse, A., West, S. E., Kyba, C. C. M., Bowser, A., Cooper, C. B., Sforzi, A., Metcalfe, A. N., Harris, E. S., Thiel, M., Haklay, M., Ponciano, L., Roche, J., Ceccaroni, L., Shilling, F. M., Dörler, D., … Jiang, Q. (2017). Citizen Science Terminology Matters: Exploring Key Terms. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 2(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.5334/cstp.96

EU-Citizen.Science: Resources. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://eu-citizen.science/resources

García, F. S., Pelacho, M., Woods, T., Fraisl, D., See, L., Haklay, M. (Muki), & Arias, R. (2021). Finding What You Need: A Guide to Citizen Science Guidelines. The Science of Citizen Science, 419–437. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58278-4_21

Hecker, S., Haklay, M., Bowser, A., Makuch, Z., Vogel, J., & Bonn, A. (Eds.). (2018). Citizen Science: Innovation in Open Science, Society and Policy. UCL Press. Retrieved from https://library.oapen.org/handle/20.500.12657/28178

Leguina L and others, ‘Deliverable 3.7 Citizen Science as a Communication Tool in the Post-Factual Era. Deliverable Report of Project H2020 NEWSERA (Grant Agreement No 873125).’ Retrieved from: https://zenodo.org/record/7689045

Vohland, K., Land-Zandstra, A., Ceccaroni, L., Lemmens, R., Perelló, J., Ponti, M., Samson, R., & Wagenknecht, K. (Eds.). (2021). The Science of Citizen Science. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58278-4

Working groups – European Citizen Science Association (ECSA). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://ecsa.citizen-science.net/working-groups/

EU projects and documents

AURORA sAfe Urban aiR mObility for euRopeAn citizens. https://biblio.ugent.be/project/41Y05620

European Commission (n.d.). Citizen science: Inspiring examples of societal engagement for Horizon Europe. Retrieved from https://cordis.europa.eu/article/id/435872-citizen-science-inspiring-examples-of-societal-engagement-for-horizon-europe

Cattaneo, B. (2019, April 30). Examining the use and practices of Citizen Science for EU policies [Text]. JRC Science Hub Communities – European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/communities/en/community/citizensdata

An inventory of citizen science activities for environmental policies. (European Commission)

Crowd4SDG. https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/872944/

European Commission. Joint Research Centre. (2016). Survey report: Data management in Citizen Science projects. Publications Office. https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2788/539115

EU-Citizen.Science. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://eu-citizen.science/

European Environment Agency (2020, March 12). Assessing air quality through citizen science. [Publication]. Retrieved  from https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/assessing-air-quality-through-citizen-science

Fullerton, K. (2020, November 23). Best Practices in Citizen Science for Environmental Monitoring [Text]. JRC Science Hub Communities – European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/communities/en/community/examining-use-and-practices-citizen-science-eu-policies/page/best-practices-citizen

Incentive: Establishing Citizen Science Hubs in European Research Performing and Funding Organisations to drive institutional change and ground Responsible Research and Innovation in society. https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/101005330

NEWSERA. https://eu-citizen.science/project/333

PANELFIT GUIDELINES. (n.d.). Guidelines Panelfit. Retrieved from https://guidelines.panelfit.eu/

Klimczuk, A., et al. (2021). ICTs, data and vulnerable people: A guide for citizens (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. 3939143). https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=3939143

Schade, S. (2019, December 3). Policy Perspectives on Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing: A special issue of CS:TP [Text]. JRC Science Hub Communities – European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/communities/en/community/citizensdata/discussion/policy-perspectives-citizen-science-and-crowdsourcing-special

Sofsky, F., & Ciucci, M. (2022, February 22). Recent Studies on Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/ATAG/2022/703351/IPOL_ATA(2022)703351_EN.pdf

Spotteron. https://www.spotteron.net/gender-equality-plan

TIME4CS Supporting sustainable Institutional Changes to promote Citizen Science in Science and Technology. https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/101006201

Veeckman, C., Keersmaekers, F., Verbrugge, K., & Livémont, E. (2022). D3.3 Citizen Science Starters Kit (Online Citizen Science Training Materials). https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7014861

DISCLAIMER

The repository is continuously updated throughout the project phase. It consists of a variety of sources arranged by thematic category to facilitate consultation. We are, however, aware of their commonalities and overlaps. There will be a greater focus on sources more relevant to the European context because of our work in different member states, but we will also cite sources beyond the EU where relevant.

Although this repository focuses primarily on law and ethics within citizen science, it may also cover adjacent topics that may be useful within this framework. On top of this, there is a brief focus on certain innovative technologies such as drones, wearables and artificial intelligence as these are used within the SOCIO-BEE project.

The information in the Knowledge Powerhouse is non-exhaustive and we will continue to add resources that are relevant throughout the project. We are open to new items and suggestions on how to enrich the platform (see contact form below).

It is always possible that in the meantime, some sources may change domain or be taken offline. This will be checked every so often and in the run-up to the second release in month 33 of the project (July 2024).

The KPH is an initiative of the SOCIO-BEE consortium. It was developed and sustained by Luka van der Veer, researcher at the Health and Ageing Law Lab (HALL) and the Law, Science, Technology and Society research group (LSTS) of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), in cooperation with the SOCIO-BEE website operators. The KPH is the outcome of work and research conducted for Work Package 6.

The views expressed in the third-party publications featured on the KPH are the sole responsibility of their authors.

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